Q: Why do chemists enjoy working with NaOH?

A: Because it's so basic!


New Findings About The Suns Atmosphere

The secrets of the sun are hidden in how energy travels up through its layers and out into space. With the help of the NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) it is now possible to focus various things that have been puzzling scientists and researchers for the longest time at a level of detail that has never been done before.

The secrets of the sun are hidden in how energy travels up through its layers and out into space. With the help of the NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) it is now possible to focus various things that have been puzzling scientists and researchers for the longest time at a level of detail that has never been done before. The suns energy production starts at its core, a giant fusion engine that converts hydrogen atoms into Helium atoms. The energy thus produced moves up through the convection zone to the suns surface and moving magnetic fields contribute extra energy along the way. As this energy moves outwards the temperature begins to drop which is expected to happen as you move away from the heat source. However, what happens next is peculiar to the suns atmosphere. As the energy continues to move upwards it mysteriously begins to get hot again. This layer in the suns atmosphere where the temperature begins to rise again is called the chromospheres. This region lies between the Photosphere and the Corona which is the hottest and outermost region of the suns atmosphere. Observations from the Iris mission satellite will help us better understand how exactly the corona is powered. It is now possible to observe the chromospheres in much more detail. Images of spectra with specifically chosen wavelengths of ultraviolet light can now be captured in high resolution and at a rapid rate. The interface region is the greatest source of ultraviolet light that impacts the earth's atmosphere and the surrounding regions. Advanced computer modeling will help scientists understand how the energy moves through the chromospheres. The light from the chromosphere is difficult to interpret due the numerous interactions that the light has with the matter before it reaches the earth. Due to this bouncing around the interaction between light and matter needs to be modeled with great detail. This is now possible due to the computational power and techniques that have been developed. It takes only a fraction of the chromospheres energy to power the corona. This is due to the fact that although the corona is at a very high temperature it has a very low density The Chromosphere on the other hand has a higher density albeit at a lower temperature. There is much more energy deposited in the Chromosphere as compared to the corona. A fraction of the energy in the chromospheres escaping into the corona is plenty to power the various processes like heating to extreme temperatures to driving the solar winds that fills the entire solar system and impacts every planet including our own. Technology like IRIS is what will help us understand these processes better.
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